The deformation of the surface of the Earth reflects the processes happening at depth. Methods such as GPS (Global Positioning System) or EDM (Electronic Density Measurement) can measure small displacements of the surface, for example along faults before and after an earthquake, or even of entire tectonic plates. GPS and EDM are also used to monitor the change of shape of volcanoes, for example if their surface bulges or deflates, giving an indication of magma movements within the crust.
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